What is the impact of international aid on Nigeria?

Although Nigeria is a rapidly growing newly emerging economy, there are many issues faced by the country, some of which receive aid from other countries. One issue is the conflict with the Islamic militant group Boko Haram. They operate in the northeast of the nation and consequently, hundreds of thousands of northeast Nigerians have become…

Local adaptations to the threat of climate change

  A good example of how climate change threatens people on a local scale is the islands of the Maldives. Most of the country is less than 1m above sea level and therefore there is a great risk that the country may be completely lost if sea levels continue to rise due to climate change….

Giltbrook 2019 Human Fieldwork

How sustainable is Giltbrook retail park?   This is an appropriate question because it is linked to our learning about sustainability and industrial developments. It is not too broad, this means it is a focussed question on a small part of the urban unit. It means it’s manageable for us to study as we can…

Burbage Brook 2019 Physical fieldwork

To investigate channel changes in Burbage Brook, specifically velocity   Our aim  To investigate channel changes in Burbage Brook, specifically velocity   This is an appropriate aim because it is linked to our learning about rivers and therefore will support our understanding. Also, it is not too broad. This means it is a focussed question…

What is a “social opportunity”?

Geography Cat has noticed that some exam questions ask about social opportunities, especially in urban areas. Education and health care: The most fundamental social opportunities are the chance to go to school, and the chance to use health care facilities. This means that those things have to be available a location you can reach, and…

Why does the UK have diverse landscapes?

  The UK has a range of landscapes for a number of reasons, the most important of which is the underlying geology. Areas of more resistant rock are more likely to be upland areas than rock which is less resistant to erosion. A good example is the Grampians in Central Scotland, this is an upland…

Describe the locations of the major upland and lowland areas of the UK

Major upland areas of the UK are concentrated in the north and west of the country, particularly in Scotland which has the highest mountains, the Grampians, including the highest peak, Ben Nevis (1345m). Almost all of Wales is upland, the Brecon Beacons and Snowdonia together forming the Cambrian mountains. Northern Ireland’s Antrim Mountains are in…

How are rural areas changing in the UK?

    Rural areas in the UK have been changing in recent years, some rural settlements are growing, whilst others are declining. South Cambridgeshire is a rural area with a growing population. Most of the growth in population is due to counter-urbanisation, people moving out of urban areas. The population of the region is now…

How do science parks contribute to the UK’s post-industrial economy?

    The number of science parks and business parks has grown rapidly in recent years in the UK. You can read about business parks here. Science parks are a specific type of business park. Science parks are clusters of businesses with a scientific and technological focus, located together on purpose-built, landscaped estates. Most of…

Geography Cat looks at the post-industrial location of business in the UK

    Since the decline of the manufacturing industry in the 1970s, the UK has become a post-industrial economy. The majority of jobs are now in the tertiary sector (providing a service), and a growing number are in the quaternary sector (research and development and ICT). The location of almost all factories was determined by…

How can food supply be increased?

    Increasing food supply does not automatically solve food insecurity issues. There is already enough food produced in the world for everyone to be well-nourished. However, the distribution of this food, its affordability and people’s access to food are the bigger issues of food security, rather than simply producing more food. However, the following…

What are the impacts of food insecurity?

    When a country cannot supply enough food to feed its population it is in a state of food insecurity. You can read more about it here. The first impact of food insecurity is the inflation of food prices, and therefore the poor can afford less and less food, both in quantity and quality….

Global food supply and consumption

    Geography Cat has already written about food security and how it can be increased, see here to read more. Globally there are some countries with high food consumption, the USA, for example, consumes around 3500 calories per person per day, whereas many countries have low food consumption, for example Sudan has an average…

Energy provision in the UK

    Total energy consumption has fallen rapidly in the UK since the 1970s, this is due to the decline of heavy industry and the rise of more energy-efficient methods. Fossil fuels predominated in the 1990s when almost 75% of UK energy was provided by coal and oil. Since then there has been a decline…

How does world trade benefit HICs, at the expense of LICs?

Trade is the exchange of goods and services. Between different countries this means imports and exports. If a country is buying/importing cheap goods, and selling/exporting expensive ones then it will become richer. LICs mainly trade low-value exports such as unprocessed agricultural products (coffee, cacao, etc.) and raw materials (iron ore, coltan, etc.). Therefore, they are…

What is fair trade?

    Fairtrade is an international movement that helps farmers in poorer countries get a fair deal for their labour and produce. It does this by setting standards for trade so that the farmer receives a fair price for their crop, by helping to ensure that farming is conducted in an environmentally sustainable way, and…

What is debt relief?

Many poorer countries borrowed vast sums of money in the 1970s to pay for large scale development schemes, however by the 2000s it was clear the ordinary people of these countries were suffering because of their governments having to pay back the loans with high rates of interest. The IMF (International Monetary Fund) and World…

What is microfinance?

    Microfinance is a way of providing small loans to people with low interest rates so they can invest in items that will help them make a living, the tools of their trade such as a sewing machine, shoe repair equipment, or even just a mobile phone. The recipient of the loan uses the…

Eight ways to close the development gap

    INVESTMENT by other nations, NGOs and TNCs Google, Walmart, the World Bank, and over  2000 Chinese companies have invested in Africa, in large schemes such as an HEP station in Madagascar and a railway in Sudan INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT TNCs opening production plants in LICs and NEES, see an article about Unilever and Shell…

What is social deprivation?

    Social deprivation is the extent to which a person, or a community, lacks what they really need to have a decent life, such as work, money, housing, and services. For example, a person who has no employment, no money, poor quality housing and no access to training or education which might help them…

Questions on urban growth and/or urbanisation

  Urbanisation is the proportion of the total population who are living in cities and large towns, whereas urban growth means the growth of the physical space that the city takes up, the changes that are made to the city and the population growth within the city. Therefore you could get a question about urbanisation…

Urbanisation in Nigeria and the UK

    Urbanisation means the proportion of people who live in cities or large towns. The rate of urbanisation means how quickly this proportion is increasing. In most high-income countries the urban population is already over 60%. In the UK, the urban population is currently 82%, in 1950 it was already 79%, therefore the rate…

What is appropriate technology?

  This is a method of doing something in a more sustainable way. It needs to be affordable to the end-user, it should be easy to use and maintain,  and it should not be wasteful of resources. An example is the rocket stove. Poor people in low-income countries usually cook their food on a small…

How can tropical rainforests be managed sustainably?

  Sustainable management can ensure that the world’s tropical rainforests, such as those in Amazonia or Malaysia, remain a lasting resource for future generations whilst human activity continues to harness their valuable resources in a way that does not cause lasting damage to the environment. The threat to tropical rainforests is deforestation due to logging,…

Is desertification an unavoidable consequence of population growth?

  Desertification is the gradual change of previously fertile land into infertile deserts, such as what is happening on the edges of both the Sahara and Thar Deserts. Population growth is certainly a cause of desertification because it leads to the conditions in which soil is eroded. For example, an increase in the number of…

What are the causes of desertification?

  Desertification is when previously fertile land becomes a desert. This happens most often on the edges of an existing desert, such as the Sahara or the Thar. Desertification happens when the land is stripped of vegetation, this exposes the soil to the weather. The sun dries it out and bakes it hard, it cracks…

Costs & benefits of hard & soft engineering for coasts & rivers

    Hard engineering is the construction of something artificial to protect a coastline from erosion or to prevent river flooding, whereas soft engineering is making use of the natural processes in order to do the same.   Hard engineering at the Coast Sea walls – REFLECT wave energy, cost £5000-10000 per metre! EFFECTIVE but EXPENSIVE Groynes –…

S.E.E. Geography

    Exam questions often ask for an answer about social, environmental or economic challenges, opportunities or impacts, therefore it is important that you know what each includes: Social Education and training Health Birth Rate, Death Rate, Life expectancy, Infant Mortality Disease Housing Diet (access to affordable good quality nutritious food) Environmental Water quality in rivers,…

Making sense of tectonic hazards

This article should help you when you are revising this topic. Don’t forget that you also need to know a few specific details of your case studies and examples so that you can achieve good marks! Natural hazards are natural events that cause risk to life, limb or property. Some natural hazards are tectonic, this…

Why do people live in areas at risk from tectonic hazards?

Millions of people live in areas of the world where volcanic eruptions and/or earthquakes are a constant threat. Most tectonic hazards occur on plate margins and those margins just happen to coincide with areas that have many advantages for humans, such as flat coastal areas that are favorable for settlement and trade. A benefit of…

Should the proposed reservoir go ahead?

  Geography Cat has written this answer but he knows it’s too long, read it through and decide which bits are most important.   I believe that the proposed reservoir at Abingdon should go ahead, however, I am aware that others may disagree. The most compelling argument in favour of the reservoir is the need…